A permanent resident is someone who has been given permanent resident status by immigrating to Abroad, but is not a single country citizen. Permanent residents are citizens of other countries. A person in any country temporarily, like a student or foreign worker, is not a permanent resident.
Refugees who are resettled from overseas become permanent residents through the Government-Assisted Refugee Program or the Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program. Someone who makes a refugee claim in any country does not become a permanent resident at that time.
To become one, the Immigration and Refugee Board must first approve their claim. Then, they must apply for and get permanent resident status.